The relationship between uric acid and cardiovascular disease has been known since the 19th century, after that many authors reported the classical association of gout, hypertension, obesity and cardiovascular disease. With the exception of specific genetic defects in purine metabolism, increased uric acid is generally associated with important risk factors for atherosclerosis like hypertension, abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome and renal failure. Studies have clearly shown an association between increased uric acid concentrations with oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, subclinical atherosclerosis and an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Increased uric acid levels are independent markers of cardiovascular disease risk. Prospective studies are necessary to show that reduction of uric acid levels prevent cardiovascular events.