Sleep is essential for the physical and mental health of a human being. Problems of sleep deprivation are increasing in modern society nowadays. Recently, various antioxidants have been implicated as neuroprotectants in the treatment of stress and stress related problems. The present study was designed to explore the possible role of nitric oxide in the protective effect of Curcumin (Curcuma longa, Zingiberaceae) against 72-h sleep deprivation-induced behavioral alterations and oxidative damage in mice. 72-h sleep deprivation significantly caused weight loss, anxiety like behavior, impaired locomotor activity and oxidative damage (increased lipid peroxidation, nitrite level and deplete glutathione and catalase activity) in animals. Treatment with Curcumin extract (10 and 20mg/kg, ip) for 5 days significantly prevented weight loss, impairment in locomotor activity, anxiety like effects in all behavioral paradigms tasks (mirror chamber, plus maze, zero maze) as compared to control (72-h sleep-deprived) (P<0.05). Biochemically, Curcumin extract treatment significantly restored depleted reduced glutathione, catalase activity, attenuated raised lipid peroxidation and nitrite level as compared to control (72-h sleep-deprived) animals. Further, pretreatment of l-arginine (50mg/kg, ip), nitric oxide precursor reversed the protective effect of Curcumin (10 mg/kg, ip) (P<0.05). However, pretreatment of l-NAME (5 mg/kg, ip), nitric oxide synthase inhibitor caused a potentiation in the protective effect of Curcumin (P<0.05). The present study suggests that nitric oxide modulation is involved in the protective effect of Curcumin in ameliorating sleep deprivation-induced behavioral alterations and oxidative damage.