SPIN1, a K homology domain protein negatively regulated and ubiquitinated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase SPL11, is involved in flowering time control in rice

Plant Cell. 2008 Jun;20(6):1456-69. doi: 10.1105/tpc.108.058610. Epub 2008 Jun 27.


The rice (Oryza sativa) E3 ligase SPOTTED LEAF11 (SPL11) negatively regulates programmed cell death and disease resistance. We demonstrate here that SPL11 also regulates flowering via interaction with SPIN1 (for SPL11-interacting protein1), a Signal Transduction and Activation of RNA family member. SPIN1 binds RNA and DNA in vitro and interacts with SPL11 in the nucleus. Spl11 mutants have delayed flowering under long-day conditions. Spin1 overexpression causes late flowering independently of daylength; expression analyses of flowering marker genes in these lines suggested that SPIN1 represses flowering by downregulating the flowering promoter gene Heading date3a (Hd3a) via Hd1-dependent mechanisms in short days and by targeting Hd1-independent factors in long days. Both Spin1 and Spl11 are regulated diurnally in opposing phases. SPL11 negatively regulates Spin1 transcript levels, while SPIN1 also affects Spl11 expression. Moreover, we show that coincidence of high accumulation of Spin1 mRNA with the light in the morning and early evening is needed to repress flowering. SPIN1 is monoubiquitinated by SPL11, suggesting that it is not targeted for degradation. Our data are consistent with a model in which SPIN1 acts as a negative regulator of flowering that itself is negatively regulated by SPL11, possibly via ubiquitination.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Flowers / genetics
  • Flowers / growth & development*
  • Flowers / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant / genetics
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant / radiation effects
  • Microscopy, Fluorescence
  • Oryza / genetics
  • Oryza / growth & development*
  • Oryza / metabolism
  • Phylogeny
  • Plant Proteins / classification
  • Plant Proteins / genetics
  • Plant Proteins / metabolism*
  • Protein Binding
  • Two-Hybrid System Techniques
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases / genetics
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases / metabolism*
  • Ubiquitination


  • Plant Proteins
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases