Quantum dots-based multiplexed immunohistochemistry of protein expression in human prostate cancer cells

Eur J Histochem. 2008 Apr-Jun;52(2):127-34. doi: 10.4081/1202.


Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are bright fluorescent nanoparticles that have been successfully used for the detection of biomarker expression in cells. The objective of the present study is to use this technology in a multiplexing manner to determine at a single cell level the expression of a cell-specific bio-marker, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) expressed by human prostate cancer LNCaP and ARCaP cell lines. Here we compared the sensitivity of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and QD-based detection of AR and PSA expression in these cell lines. Further, we conducted multiplexing QD-based detection of PSA and androgen receptor (AR) expression in LNCaP cells subjecting to androgen (R1881) stimulation. The involvement of AR in PSA regulation in LNCaP cells, at a single cell level, was confirmed by the co-incubation of LNCaP cells in the presence of both R1881 and its receptor antagonist, bicalutamide (Casodex). We showed here the superior quality of QDs, in comparison to IHC, for the detection of AR and PSA in cultured LNCaP and ARCaP cells. Multiplexing QDs technique can be used to detect simultaneously AR and PSA expression induced by R1881 which promoted AR translocation from its cytosolic to the nuclear compartment. We observed AR antagonist, bicalutamide, inhibited AR nuclear translocation and PSA, but not AR expression in LNCaP cells.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Androgen Receptor Antagonists
  • Androgens / pharmacology
  • Anilides / pharmacology
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Male
  • Metribolone / pharmacology
  • Nitriles / pharmacology
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen / biosynthesis*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Protein Transport
  • Quantum Dots
  • Receptors, Androgen / biosynthesis*
  • Tosyl Compounds / pharmacology


  • Androgen Receptor Antagonists
  • Androgens
  • Anilides
  • Nitriles
  • Receptors, Androgen
  • Tosyl Compounds
  • Metribolone
  • bicalutamide
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen