Blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in male patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: plasma factor V and factor X activities increase in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

J Endocrinol Invest. 2008 Jun;31(6):537-41. doi: 10.1007/BF03346404.


Background and objectives: In men, androgens have both pro- and anti-thrombotic effects. Androgen deficiency in men is associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the influence of hypogonadism on hemostasis is controversial. Little is known about hemostatic features of male patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH). Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the markers of endogenous coagulation and fibrinolysis, and to investigate the relationships between endogenous sex hormones and hemostatic parameters and serum lipid profile in men with IHH.

Design and methods: Seventeen patients with IHH and 20 age-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, factors (F) V, VII, VIII, IX, and X activities, von Willebrand factor (vWF), antithrombin III (AT III), protein C, protein S, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), and tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), as well as common lipid variables, were measured. The relationships between serum sex hormones and these hemostatic parameters were examined.

Results: Compared with the control subjects, platelet count, FV, FX, and protein C activities were significantly increased in patients with IHH (p<0.01, p<0.05, p<0.01, and p<0.05, respectively), whereas AT III was decreased (p<0.05). Fibrinogen, FVIII, vWF, t-PA, PAI-1, and the other coagulation/fibrinolysis parameters and lipid profile in patients with IHH were not different from the controls. In patients with IHH, we showed that serum LH level was negatively correlated with fibrinogen (r: -0.78, p<0.01) and protein C (r: -0.55, p<0.05) and positively correlated with t-PA (r: 0.53, p<0.05). Serum FSH levels inversely correlated with fibrinogen (r: -0.75, p<0.01).

Interpretation and conclusions: We found some differences in the hemostatic parameters between the patients with IHH and healthy controls. Increased platelet count, FV and FX activities and decreased AT III levels in patients with IHH represent a potential hypercoagulable state, which might augment the risk for atherosclerotic and atherothrombotic complications. Therefore, IHH may be associated with an increased risk of CVD. However, sex hormones may play a role at different levels of the complex hemostatic system in patients with IHH.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Antithrombin III / metabolism
  • Atherosclerosis / blood
  • Atherosclerosis / etiology
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Blood Coagulation / physiology*
  • Blood Coagulation Disorders / blood
  • Factor V / metabolism*
  • Factor X / metabolism*
  • Fibrinolysis / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Hypogonadism / blood*
  • Hypogonadism / complications
  • Hypogonadism / diagnosis
  • Male
  • Risk Factors
  • Thrombosis / blood
  • Thrombosis / etiology


  • Biomarkers
  • Antithrombin III
  • Factor V
  • Factor X