Activity elicits capture of dense-core vesicles (DCVs) that transit through resting Drosophila synaptic boutons to produce a rebound in presynaptic neuropeptide content following release. The onset of capture overlaps with an increase in the mobility of DCVs already present in synaptic boutons. Vesicle mobilization requires Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ release by presynaptic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ryanodine receptors (RyRs) that in turn stimulates Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CamKII). Here we show that the same signaling is required for activity-dependent capture of transiting DCVs. Specifically, the CamKII inhibitor KN-93, but not its inactive analog KN-92, eliminated the rebound replacement of neuropeptidergic DCVs in synaptic boutons. Furthermore, pharmacologically or genetically inhibiting neuronal sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase to deplete presynaptic ER Ca2+ stores or directly inhibiting RyRs prevented the capture response. These results show that the presynaptic RyR-CamKII pathway, which triggers mobilization of resident synaptic DCVs to facilitate exocytosis, also mediates activity-dependent capture of transiting DCVs to replenish neuropeptide stores.