The Short Test of Mental Status can be administered to patients in inpatient and outpatient settings in approximately 5 minutes, and it contains items that test orientation, attention, immediate recall, arithmetic, abstraction, construction, information, and delayed (approximately 3 minutes) recall. The test was administered to a group of demented community patients and their age- and sex-matched control subjects. Using an age-adjusted approach, sensitivity of the test to identifying dementia is 86.4, with a specificity of 93.5. The test was compared with standardized tests of cognitive function such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Mattis Dementia Scale, and the Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and showed a high degree of correlation. Group means and standard deviations for subtest items and total score are presented for control subjects (n = 138), demented patients (n = 130), and patients with memory impairment only (n = 20). Percentile scores for subtest items in control subjects are also provided.