A robust and high-capacity [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding assay for determining antagonist and inverse agonist pharmacological parameters of histamine H(3) receptor ligands

Assay Drug Dev Technol. 2008 Jun;6(3):339-49. doi: 10.1089/adt.2007.118.


Guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)triphosphate ([(35)S]GTPgammaS) binding assays were established and utilized as a reliable and high-capacity functional assay for determining antagonist and inverse agonist pharmacological parameters of novel histamine H(3) ligands, at the recombinant human H(3) receptor. [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding assays were performed with membranes prepared from human embryonic kidney 293 cells stably expressing the full-length (445 amino acids) human H(3) receptor isoform, at approximately 1 pmol/mg of protein. Utilizing robotic liquid handling, assay filtration, and scintillation counting in a 96-well format, concentration-response curves were determined for up to 40 compounds per assay. The imidazole-containing H(3) receptor antagonist ciproxifan and the non-imidazole antagonist ABT-239 inhibited (R)-alpha-methylhistamine (RAMH)-stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding in a competitive manner, and negative logarithm of the dissociation equilibrium constant (pK(b)) values determined for nearly 200 structurally diverse H(3) antagonists were very similar to the respective negative logarithm of the equilibrium inhibition constant values from N-alpha-[(3)H]methylhistamine competition binding assays. H(3) antagonists also concentration-dependently decreased basal [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding, thereby displaying inverse agonism at the constitutively active H(3) receptor. At maximally effective concentrations, non-imidazole H(3) antagonists inhibited basal [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding by approximately 20%. For over 100 of these antagonists, negative logarithm of the 50% effective concentration values for inverse agonism were very similar to the respective pK(b) values. Both H(3) receptor agonist-dependent and -independent (constitutive) [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding were sensitive to changes in assay concentrations of sodium, magnesium, and the guanine nucleotide GDP; however, the potency of ABT-239 for inhibition of RAMH-stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding was not significantly affected. These robust and reliable [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding assays have become one of the important tools in our pharmacological analysis and development of novel histamine H(3) receptor antagonists/inverse agonists.

MeSH terms

  • Benzofurans / pharmacology
  • Cell Line
  • Drug Inverse Agonism
  • Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate) / metabolism*
  • Histamine Agonists / pharmacology*
  • Histamine H3 Antagonists / pharmacology*
  • Humans
  • Ligands
  • Methylhistamines / pharmacology
  • Pyrrolidines / pharmacology
  • Receptors, Histamine H3 / drug effects*
  • Sulfur Radioisotopes*


  • Benzofurans
  • Histamine Agonists
  • Histamine H3 Antagonists
  • Ligands
  • Methylhistamines
  • Pyrrolidines
  • Receptors, Histamine H3
  • Sulfur Radioisotopes
  • Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate)
  • alpha-methylhistamine
  • benzonitrile, 4-(2-(2-((2r)-2-methyl-1-pyrrolidinyl)ethyl)-5-benzofuranyl)-