The purpose of this study was to assess the antinociceptive and antiallodynic effect of pyritinol as well as its possible mechanism of action in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) injection caused hyperglycemia within 1 week. Formalin-evoked flinching was increased in diabetic rats as compared to non-diabetic rats. Oral acute administration of pyritinol (50-200 mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced flinching behavior in diabetic rats. Moreover, prolonged administration of pyritinol (12.5-50 mg/kg, every 2 days for 2 weeks) reduced formalin-induced nociception. 1H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, 2 mg/kg, i.p.), but not naltrexone (a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg, s.c.) or indomethacin (a non-selective cycloxygenase inhibitor, 5 mg/kg, i.p.), blocked the pyritinol-induced antinociception in diabetic rats. Given alone ODQ, naltrexone or indomethacin did not modify formalin-induced nociception in diabetic rats. Oral acute (200 mg/kg) or prolonged (25 mg/kg, every 2 days for 2 weeks) administration of pyritinol significantly reduced streptozotocin-induced changes in free carbonyls, dityrosine, malondialdehyde and advanced oxidative protein products. Four to 8 weeks after diabetes induction, tactile allodynia was observed in the streptozotocin-injected rats. On this condition, oral administration of pyritinol (50-200 mg/kg) reduced tactile allodynia in diabetic rats. Results indicate that pyritinol is able to reduce formalin-induced nociception and tactile allodynia in streptozotocin-injected rats. In addition, data suggest that activation of guanylyl cyclase and the scavenger properties of pyritinol, but not improvement in glucose levels, play an important role in these effects.