Herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK) is an inflammatory disorder induced by HSV-1 infection and characterized by T cell-dependent destruction of corneal tissues. It is not known what triggers CD4(+) T cell migration into the stroma of HSV-1-infected corneas. The keratocyte is a fibroblast-like cell that can function as an antigen-presenting cell in the mouse cornea by expressing MHC class II and costimulatory molecules after HSV-1 infection. We hypothesized that chemokines produced by stromal keratocytes are involved in CD4(+) T cell infiltration into the cornea. We found that keratocytes produce several cytokines and chemokines, including MCP-1, RANTES, and T cell activation (TCA)-3. HSV-1 infection increased the production of MCP-1 and RANTES by keratocytes, and these acted as chemoattractants for HSV-1-primed CD4(+) T cells expressing CCR2 and CCR5. Expression of MCP-1 in the corneal stroma was confirmed in vivo. Finally, when HSV-1-primed CD4(+) T cells were adoptively transferred into wild type and MCP-1-deficient mice that had been sublethally irradiated to minimize chemokine production from immune cells, infiltration of CD4(+) T cells was markedly reduced in the MCP-1-deficient mice, suggesting that it is the MCP-1 from HSV-1-infected keratocytes that attracts CD4(+) T cells into the cornea.