Pancreatic cancer has one of the highest mortalities among all malignancies and there is an urgent need for new therapy. This might be achieved by resolving the detailed biological mechanism, and in this study we examined how pancreatic cancer cells develop aggressive properties by focusing on signalling through the fibroblast growth factor (FGF)10 and FGF receptor (FGFR)2, which play important roles in pancreatic organogenesis. Immunostaining of pancreatic cancer tissues showed that FGFR2 was expressed in cancer cells, whereas FGF10 was expressed in stromal cells surrounding the cancer cells. Patients with high FGFR2 expression in cancer cells had a shorter survival time compared to those with low FGFR2 expression. Fibroblast growth factor 10 induced cell migration and invasion of CFPAC-1 and AsPC-1 pancreatic cancer cells through interaction with FGFR2-IIIb, a specific isoform of FGFR2. Fibroblast growth factor 10 also induced expression of mRNA for membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, and increased secretion of TGF-beta1 protein from these cell lines. These data indicate that stromal FGF10 induces migration and invasion in pancreatic cancer cells through interaction with FGFR2, resulting in a poor prognosis. This suggests that FGF10/FGFR2 signalling is a promising target for new molecular therapy against pancreatic cancer.