ATR: an essential regulator of genome integrity

Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2008 Aug;9(8):616-27. doi: 10.1038/nrm2450. Epub 2008 Jul 2.


Genome maintenance is a constant concern for cells, and a coordinated response to DNA damage is required to maintain cellular viability and prevent disease. The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM and RAD3-related (ATR) protein kinases act as master regulators of the DNA-damage response by signalling to control cell-cycle transitions, DNA replication, DNA repair and apoptosis. Recent studies have provided new insights into the mechanisms that control ATR activation, have helped to explain the overlapping but non-redundant activities of ATR and ATM in DNA-damage signalling, and have clarified the crucial functions of ATR in maintaining genome integrity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins
  • Carrier Proteins / metabolism
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / physiology*
  • DNA Damage / physiology
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Genomic Instability / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Models, Biological
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational
  • Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics
  • Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism
  • Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases / physiology*
  • Signal Transduction


  • Carrier Proteins
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • TOPBP1 protein, human
  • ATR protein, human
  • Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins
  • Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases