Deposition of the amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) is a pathophysiological event associated with Alzheimer's disease. Although much is known about the molecular composition of extracellular Abeta deposits, the role of the intracellular pool of Abeta is not fully understood. We investigated whether Abeta levels are increased in cornu ammonis 1 pyramidal neurons of Alzheimer's disease hippocampus, using laser capture microdissection to isolate the neurons and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantification. Our results showed increased Abeta42 levels and an elevated Abeta42/Abeta40 ratio in neurons from sporadic as well as from familial cases of Alzheimer's disease, whereas Abeta40 levels remain unchanged between the cases and controls. We speculate that intracellular accumulation of Abeta42 increase vulnerability of cornu ammonis 1 pyramidal neurons in Alzheimer's disease.