Toxinotype V Clostridium difficile in humans and food animals

Emerg Infect Dis. 2008 Jul;14(7):1039-45. doi: 10.3201/eid1407.071641.

Abstract

Clostridium difficile is a recognized pathogen in neonatal pigs and may contribute to enteritis in calves. Toxinotype V strains have been rare causes of human C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD). We examined toxinotype V in human disease, the genetic relationship of animal and human toxinotype V strains, and in vitro toxin production of these strains. From 2001 through 2006, 8 (1.3%) of 620 patient isolates were identified as toxinotype V; before 2001, 7 (<0.02%) of approximately 6,000 isolates were identified as toxinotype V. Six (46.2%) of 13 case-patients for whom information was available had community-associated CDAD. Molecular characterization showed a high degree of similarity between human and animal toxinotype V isolates; all contained a 39-bp tcdC deletion and most produced binary toxin. Further study is needed to understand the epidemiology of CDAD caused by toxinotype V C. difficile, including the potential of foodborne transmission to humans.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Animals
  • Bacterial Proteins / classification
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Bacterial Toxins / classification*
  • Bacterial Toxins / genetics
  • Cattle
  • Clostridium Infections / genetics
  • Clostridium Infections / microbiology*
  • Clostridium Infections / veterinary
  • Clostridium difficile / classification*
  • Community-Acquired Infections / genetics
  • Community-Acquired Infections / microbiology
  • Disease Reservoirs
  • Enterotoxins / classification
  • Enterotoxins / genetics
  • Female
  • Gastrointestinal Diseases / microbiology
  • Gastrointestinal Diseases / veterinary
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Repressor Proteins / classification
  • Repressor Proteins / genetics
  • Ribotyping
  • Sus scrofa

Substances

  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Bacterial Toxins
  • Enterotoxins
  • Repressor Proteins
  • TcdC protein, Clostridium difficile
  • tcdA protein, Clostridium difficile
  • toxB protein, Clostridium difficile