Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a new approach in tissue regeneration and a developing area for clinicians and researchers. It is used in various surgical fields, including oral and maxillofacial surgery. PRP is prepared from the patient's own blood and contains growth factors that influence wound healing. Of these growth factors, platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, and epidermal growth factor play a pivotal role in tissue repair mechanisms. Although the growth factors and mechanisms involved are still poorly understood, the easy application of PRP in the clinic and its possible beneficial outcome, including reduction of bleeding, rapid soft tissue healing, and bone regeneration, hold promise for new treatment approaches. However, animal studies and human trials demonstrate conflicting results regarding the application of PRP. Therefore the aim of this literature review is to evaluate the scientific evidence regarding the use of PRP in dentistry, to describe the different bioactive substances included in PRP and their participation in the healing process, to elucidate the different techniques and available technology for PRP preparation, to review animal and human studies, to clarify risks, and to provide guidance for future research.