Background & aims: The A(2B) adenosine receptor (A(2B)AR) is the predominant adenosine receptor expressed in the colonic epithelia. We have previously shown that A(2B)AR mRNA and protein levels are up-regulated during colitis. In this study, we addressed the role of the A(2B)AR in the development of murine colitis and the potential mechanism underlying its effects.
Methods: Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS), and Salmonella typhimurium were used to induce colitis in A(2B)AR-null mice (A(2B)AR(-/-)). Colitis was determined using established clinical and histologic scoring. Keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) measurements were performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results: Colonic inflammation induced by DSS, TNBS, or S typhimurium was attenuated in A(2B)AR(-/-) compared with their wild-type counterparts. Clinical features, histologic score, and myeloperoxidase activity were significantly decreased in A(2B)AR(-/-) mice. However, A(2B)AR(-/-) showed increased susceptibility to systemic Salmonella infection. Tissue levels of the neutrophil chemokine, KC was decreased in colitic A(2B)AR(-/-) mice. In addition, flagellin-induced KC levels were attenuated in A(2B)AR(-/-) mice. Neutrophil chemotaxis in response to exogenous interleukin-8 was preserved in A(2B)AR(-/-) mice, suggesting intact neutrophil migration in response to appropriate stimuli.
Conclusions: These data demonstrate, for the first time, that the A(2B)AR plays a proinflammatory role in colitis. A(2B) receptor antagonism may be an effective treatment for acute inflammatory intestinal diseases such as acute flare of inflammatory bowel disease.