A 10,000-rad radiation hybrid (RH) cell panel of the rhesus macaque was generated to construct a comprehensive RH map of chromosome 5. The map represents 218 markers typed in 185 RH clones. The 4846-cR map has an average marker spacing of 798 kb. Alignments of the RH map to macaque and human genome sequences confirm a large inversion and reveal a previously unreported telomeric inversion. The macaque genome sequence indicates small translocations from the ancestral homolog of macaque chromosome 5 to macaque chromosomes 1 and 6. The RH map suggests that these are probably assembly artifacts. Unlike the genome sequence, the RH mapping data indicate the conservation of synteny between macaque chromosome 5 and human chromosome 4. This study shows that the 10,000-rad panel is appropriate for the generation of a high-resolution whole-genome RH map suitable for the verification of the rhesus genome assembly.