A unified Bayesian framework for MEG/EEG source imaging

Neuroimage. 2009 Feb 1;44(3):947-66. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.02.059. Epub 2008 Mar 18.


The ill-posed nature of the MEG (or related EEG) source localization problem requires the incorporation of prior assumptions when choosing an appropriate solution out of an infinite set of candidates. Bayesian approaches are useful in this capacity because they allow these assumptions to be explicitly quantified using postulated prior distributions. However, the means by which these priors are chosen, as well as the estimation and inference procedures that are subsequently adopted to affect localization, have led to a daunting array of algorithms with seemingly very different properties and assumptions. From the vantage point of a simple Gaussian scale mixture model with flexible covariance components, this paper analyzes and extends several broad categories of Bayesian inference directly applicable to source localization including empirical Bayesian approaches, standard MAP estimation, and multiple variational Bayesian (VB) approximations. Theoretical properties related to convergence, global and local minima, and localization bias are analyzed and fast algorithms are derived that improve upon existing methods. This perspective leads to explicit connections between many established algorithms and suggests natural extensions for handling unknown dipole orientations, extended source configurations, correlated sources, temporal smoothness, and computational expediency. Specific imaging methods elucidated under this paradigm include the weighted minimum l(2)-norm, FOCUSS, minimum current estimation, VESTAL, sLORETA, restricted maximum likelihood, covariance component estimation, beamforming, variational Bayes, the Laplace approximation, and automatic relevance determination, as well as many others. Perhaps surprisingly, all of these methods can be formulated as particular cases of covariance component estimation using different concave regularization terms and optimization rules, making general theoretical analyses and algorithmic extensions/improvements particularly relevant.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Bayes Theorem
  • Brain / physiology*
  • Brain Mapping / methods*
  • Computer Simulation
  • Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted
  • Electroencephalography / methods*
  • Evoked Potentials / physiology*
  • Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods*
  • Magnetoencephalography / methods*
  • Models, Neurological
  • Pattern Recognition, Automated / methods*