The aim of this study was determine whether hospitals accredited by the Society of Chest Pain Centers hospitals (accredited chest pain centers [ACPCs]) are associated with better performance regarding Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services core measures for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) than nonaccredited hospitals. The study was a retrospective, observational cohort study of hospitals reporting Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services core measures for AMI from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2005, on the basis of the presence or absence of Society of Chest Pain Centers accreditation. Data were obtained from the Web sites of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (Hospital Compare), Society of Chest Pain Centers listings, and the American Hospital Directory. Groups were compared in terms of demographics and mean percentage compliance with all 8 AMI core measures. Student's t test, chi-square analysis, and logistic regression were used to analyze bivariate relations. Multivariate logistic regression models used a propensity-score adjustment factor. Of the 4,197 hospitals that reported core measures for AMI, 178 (4%) were accredited and 4,019 (96%) were not. ACPCs had been accredited for an average of 12 months and were larger (378 vs 204 beds), more often teaching hospitals (52% vs 30%), and more often urban (95% vs 69%) (all p <0.0001). There were 395,250 patients with AMIs, of whom 55,418 (14%) presented to ACPCs and 339,832 (86%) presented to nonaccredited hospitals. There was significantly greater compliance with all 8 AMI core measures at ACPCs (p <0.0001), except for lytic therapy <30 minutes after arrival (p = 0.04), for which unadjusted performance was the same. In conclusion, ACPCs were associated with better compliance with Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services core measures and saw a greater proportion of patients with AMIs.