Canine leishmaniosis is a widely spread zoonosis that is potentially fatal to humans and dogs. Infection with Leishmania infantum is considerably more prevalent than clinical disease, and infected dogs with no signs of disease might, potentially, transmit infection. Diagnosis of asymptomatic infection by serology is insufficient and PCR markedly increases its sensitivity. A new therapy exclusively for canine leishmaniosis is needed because current drugs do not reliably eliminate infection and might provoke resistance. Protection against sand-fly bites by topical insecticides is effective in reducing infection, and recent development of vaccines has indicated that prevention by vaccination is feasible. Integrated prevention with topical insecticides reducing the feeding of vectors and vaccination blocking early infection would be the basis of successful control programs.