BH3 activation blocks Hdmx suppression of apoptosis and cooperates with Nutlin to induce cell death

Cell Cycle. 2008 Jul 1;7(13):1973-82. doi: 10.4161/cc.7.13.6072.


The Hdmx protein restricts p53 activity in vivo and is overexpressed in a significant fraction of human tumors that retain the wild type p53 allele. An understanding of how Hdmx limits p53 activation and blocks apoptosis could therefore lead to development of novel therapeutic agents. We previously showed that Hdmx modulates tumor cell sensitivity to Nutlin-3a, a potent antagonist of the p53/Hdm2 interaction. In this report, we demonstrate that this also applies to MI-219, another Hdm2 antagonist. Thus, the inability to disrupt Hdmx/p53 complexes is a potential barrier to the efficacy of these compounds as single agents. We show that sensitivity to apoptosis in cells with high Hdmx levels is restored by combined treatment with Nutlin and a Bcl-2 family member antagonist to activate Bax. The data are consistent with a model in which Hdmx attenuates p53-dependent activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, and that this occurs upstream of Bax activation. Thus, selectively inhibiting Hdm2 and activating Bax is one effective strategy to induce apoptosis in tumors with high Hdmx levels. Our findings also indicate that preferential induction of apoptosis in tumor versus normal cells occurs using appropriate drug doses.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Apoptosis*
  • Biphenyl Compounds / pharmacology*
  • Cell Cycle / physiology
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Down-Regulation
  • Humans
  • Imidazoles / metabolism*
  • Imidazoles / pharmacology
  • Nitrophenols / pharmacology*
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism*
  • Piperazines / metabolism*
  • Piperazines / pharmacology
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism
  • Sulfonamides / pharmacology*
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism*
  • bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein / metabolism
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein / metabolism*


  • ABT-737
  • BAK1 protein, human
  • Biphenyl Compounds
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Imidazoles
  • MDM4 protein, human
  • Nitrophenols
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Piperazines
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
  • Sulfonamides
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein
  • nutlin 3