Protein arginine methylation is a rapidly growing field of biomedical research that holds great promise for extending our understanding of developmental and pathological processes. Less than ten years ago, fewer than two dozen proteins were verified to contain methylarginine. Currently, however, hundreds of methylarginine proteins have been detected and many have been confirmed by mass spectrometry and other proteomic and molecular techniques. Several of these proteins are products of disease genes or are implicated in disease processes by recent experimental or clinical observations. The purpose of this chapter is twofold; (1) to re-examine the role of protein arginine methylation placed within the context of cell growth and differentiation, as well as within the rich variety of cellular metabolic methylation pathways and (2) to review the implications of recent advances in protein methylarginine detection and the analysis of protein methylarginine function for our understanding of human disease.