Inhibition of Protein Synthesis by Imexon Reduces HIF-1alpha Expression in Normoxic and Hypoxic Pancreatic Cancer Cells

Invest New Drugs. 2009 Feb;27(1):89-98. doi: 10.1007/s10637-008-9149-9. Epub 2008 Jul 8.


Hypoxia-inducing factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha), is a major survival factor for tumor cells growing in a low oxygen environment. The anti-cancer agent imexon binds thiols and causes accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in pancreatic cancer cells. Unlike many cytotoxic agents, imexon is equi-cytotoxic in human MiaPaCa-2 and Panc-1 cells grown in normoxic (21% O(2)) and hypoxic (1% O(2)) conditions. Western blot analyses of imexon-treated cells demonstrated that imexon reduces HIF-1alpha protein levels in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions in a time- and concentration-dependant fashion. Gemcitabine did not similarly affect HIF-1alpha levels. Imexon did not reduce transcription of new HIF-1alpha mRNA, but did reduce the synthesis of new proteins, including HIF-1alpha, measured by (35)S methionine/cysteine (Met/Cys) incorporation. Concurrently, the half-life of existing HIF-1alpha protein was increased by imexon, in association with a marked inhibition of chymotryptic activity in the 20S proteasome. The inhibition of HIF-1alpha translation was not specific, rather it was part of a general decrease in protein translation caused by imexon. This inhibitory effect on translation did not involve phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha (eIF-2alpha) and was not closely correlated to cell growth inhibition by imexon, suggesting that mechanisms other than protein synthesis inhibition contribute to the drug's cytotoxic effects. In summary, imexon blocks the translation of new proteins, including HIF-1alpha, and this effect overcomes an increase in the stability of preformed HIF-1alpha due to proteasome inhibition by imexon. Because net HIF-1alpha levels are reduced by imexon, combination studies with other drugs affected by HIF-1alpha survival signaling are warranted.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Cell Hypoxia / physiology
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives
  • Deoxycytidine / pharmacology
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Hexanones / pharmacology*
  • Humans
  • Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / metabolism*
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex / metabolism
  • Protein Synthesis Inhibitors / pharmacology*


  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • HIF1A protein, human
  • Hexanones
  • Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit
  • Protein Synthesis Inhibitors
  • Deoxycytidine
  • 4-imino-1,3-diazabicyclo(3.1.0)hexan-2-one
  • gemcitabine
  • Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex