Development and validation of a solid-phase extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of methadone, heroin, cocaine and metabolites in sweat

Anal Bioanal Chem. 2008 Sep;392(1-2):115-27. doi: 10.1007/s00216-008-2228-0. Epub 2008 Jul 8.

Abstract

A sensitive and specific method is presented to simultaneously quantify methadone, heroin, cocaine and metabolites in sweat. Drugs were eluted from sweat patches with sodium acetate buffer, followed by SPE and quantification by GC/MS with electron impact ionization and selected ion monitoring. Daily calibration for anhydroecgonine methyl ester, ecgonine methyl ester, cocaine, benzoylecgonine (BE), codeine, morphine, 6-acetylcodeine, 6-acetylmorphine (6AM), heroin (5-1000 ng/patch) and methadone (10-1000 ng/patch) achieved determination coefficients of >0.995, and calibrators quantified to within +/-20% of the target concentrations. Extended calibration curves (1000-10,000 ng/patch) were constructed for methadone, cocaine, BE and 6AM by modifying injection techniques. Within (N = 5) and between-run (N = 20) imprecisions were calculated at six control levels across the dynamic ranges with coefficients of variation of <6.5%. Accuracies at these concentrations were +/-11.9% of target. Heroin hydrolysis during specimen processing was <11%. This novel assay offers effective monitoring of drug exposure during drug treatment, workplace and criminal justice monitoring programs.

MeSH terms

  • Cocaine / analogs & derivatives
  • Cocaine / analysis*
  • Cocaine / metabolism
  • Codeine / analogs & derivatives
  • Codeine / analysis
  • Codeine / metabolism
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry / methods*
  • Heroin / analysis*
  • Heroin / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Methadone / analysis*
  • Methadone / metabolism
  • Morphine Derivatives / analysis
  • Morphine Derivatives / metabolism
  • Solid Phase Extraction / methods*
  • Sweat / chemistry*
  • Sweat / metabolism

Substances

  • Morphine Derivatives
  • anhydroecgonine methyl ester
  • benzoylecgonine
  • acetylcodeine
  • Heroin
  • Cocaine
  • 6-O-monoacetylmorphine
  • Codeine
  • Methadone
  • ecgonine methyl ester