In 2 experiments we examined the ability of rats to form configural memories of what auditory stimulus (X or Y) was presented where (Context A or B) and when (morning or afternoon). In both experiments, rats received morning presentations of X in Context A and Y in Context B and afternoon presentations of X in B and Y in A. Subsequently, at midday the rats were exposed to trials where X was paired with footshock whereas Y was not. We then assessed the degree of contextual fear in A and B in the morning and the afternoon. In the morning, rats showed more fear in A than in B, and in the afternoon they showed more fear in B than in A. These results indicate that rats can form configural memories that represent what (X or Y) was presented, where (A or B), and when (morning or afternoon).