This study assessed the relative influence of psychological barriers, SES, and ethnic differences in mammography use for a community sample of 586 White, 227 Black, and 150 Hispanic women. Confirmatory factor analyses with latent variables indicated plausible factor structures for all groups on items related to barriers to mammography. Summed indicators of SES, fear of radiation, embarrassment, pain, anxiety, and cost concerns were correlated significantly with mammography use for the pooled group. Separate analyses by ethnicity indicated a substantial relationship between mammography use and cost concerns by White and Black women, and fear of pain by Black and Hispanic women. Use of mammography was associated more highly with SES among Hispanic women. Pooled logistic regression analyses controlling for SES and ethnicity showed that the psychological barriers, especially concern about cost, remained important independent predictors of mammography use. We explore sociocultural explanations for less mammography use by Hispanic women, especially those less acculturated.