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. 2008 Jul 10;8:199.
doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-8-199.

Phylogeny and Biogeography of African Murinae Based on Mitochondrial and Nuclear Gene Sequences, With a New Tribal Classification of the Subfamily

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Free PMC article

Phylogeny and Biogeography of African Murinae Based on Mitochondrial and Nuclear Gene Sequences, With a New Tribal Classification of the Subfamily

Emilie Lecompte et al. BMC Evol Biol. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: Within the subfamily Murinae, African murines represent 25% of species biodiversity, making this group ideal for detailed studies of the patterns and timing of diversification of the African endemic fauna and its relationships with Asia. Here we report the results of phylogenetic analyses of the endemic African murines through a broad sampling of murine diversity from all their distribution area, based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and the two nuclear gene fragments (IRBP exon 1 and GHR).

Results: A combined analysis of one mitochondrial and two nuclear gene sequences consistently identified and robustly supported ten primary lineages within Murinae. We propose to formalize a new tribal arrangement within the Murinae that reflects this phylogeny. The diverse African murine assemblage includes members of five of the ten tribes and clearly derives from multiple faunal exchanges between Africa and Eurasia. Molecular dating analyses using a relaxed Bayesian molecular clock put the first colonization of Africa around 11 Mya, which is consistent with the fossil record. The main period of African murine diversification occurred later following disruption of the migration route between Africa and Asia about 7-9 Mya. A second period of interchange, dating to around 5-6.5 Mya, saw the arrival in Africa of Mus (leading to the speciose endemic Nannomys), and explains the appearance of several distinctive African lineages in the late Miocene and Pliocene fossil record of Eurasia.

Conclusion: Our molecular survey of Murinae, which includes the most complete sampling so far of African taxa, indicates that there were at least four separate radiations within the African region, as well as several phases of dispersal between Asia and Africa during the last 12 My. We also reconstruct the phylogenetic structure of the Murinae, and propose a new classification at tribal level for this traditionally problematic group.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Maximum likelihood tree for the combined dataset. A black dot indicates that BP = 100 and PP = 1.0. Otherwise values are indicated as follow: BP/PP. An "-" indicates that MrBayes results support an alternative topology. The letters refer to the main groupings discussed in the text.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Simplified chronogram with the main murine groups. For each group the oldest fossil is indicated by an arrow according to [51,52,65,66,71,73,76,104,105,108,134-136]. Black area represents African taxa, light grey the Australasian taxa, and dark grey the Eurasian ones.

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