Innate recognition of invading pathogens in peripheral tissues results in the recruitment of circulating memory CD8(+) T cells to sites of localized inflammation during the early phase of a recall response. However, the mechanisms that control the rapid recruitment of these cells to peripheral sites are poorly understood, particularly in relation to influenza and parainfluenza infections of the respiratory tract. In this study, we demonstrate a crucial role for C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) in the accelerated recruitment of memory CD8(+) T cells to the lung airways during virus challenge. Most importantly, CCR5 deficiency resulted in decreased recruitment of memory T cells expressing key effector molecules and impaired control of virus replication during the initial stages of a secondary response. These data highlight the critical importance of early memory T cell recruitment for the efficacy of cellular immunity in the lung.