Given that protein-protein interactions (PPIs) regulate nearly every living process; the exploration of global and pathway-specific protein interaction networks is expected to have major implications in the understanding of diseases and for drug discovery. Consequently, the development and application of methodologies that address physical associations among proteins is of major importance in today's proteomics research. The most widely and successfully used methodology to assess PPIs is the yeast two-hybrid system (YTH). Here we present an overview on the current applications of YTH and variant technologies in yeast and mammalian systems. Two-hybrid-based methods will not only continue to have a dominant role in the assessment of protein interactomes but will also become important in the development of novel compounds that target protein interaction interfaces for therapeutic intervention.