Substantial evidence now exists supporting the bidirectional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems. A number of hormonal and neuropeptide mediators have been shown to influence immune development and function in healthy, aged and diseased individuals. Immune cell subsets express receptors for many of these ligands and similarly, receptors for cytokines and growth factors have been identified on cells within the central nervous and endocrine systems. During times of stress or injury, each of these systems come into play and transmits messages to one another. The lines of communication between the immune system and these various neuronal and endocrine organ systems constitute specific axes of interactions, which have been shown to have a profound impact on immune function, disease development and susceptibility to infections and disease. In this Special Issue, experts in neuroendocrine immunology have provided comprehensive reviews on the current advances in this area of research as well as commentary on relevance of the various axes in controlling immunity and disease development.