Peroxisomes are one of numerous organelles in a eukaryotic cell; they are small, single-membrane-bound vesicles involved in cellular metabolism, particularly fatty acid degradation. Transport of metabolites and co-factors in and across the membrane is taken care of by specific transporters. Peroxisome formation and maintenance has been debated for a long time: opinions swinging from autonomous to ER-derived organelles. Only recently it has been established firmly that the site of origin of peroxisomes is the ER. It implies that a new branch of the endomembrane system is open to further characterization.