Background: This study aims to quantitatively and qualitatively assess microvascular complications and their risk factors in patients with cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) compared to those with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1).
Methods: 79 patients with CFRD were matched with 79 patients with DM1 according to sex, age and duration of insulin therapy. Retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, nephropathy and microalbuminuria were the microvascular complications assessed. Risk factors studied were: smoking, BMI, HbA1c, cholesterol, cholesterol/HDL ratio, diastolic and systolic blood pressure.
Results: Both groups had the same number of microvascular complications (29%). CFRD patients showed more microalbuminuria (21% versus 4.1%; p=0.003), while retinopathy was more common in patients with DM1 (24% versus 10%; p=0.044). The prevalences of peripheral neuropathy and nephropathy were similar. Patients with CFRD had lower BMI (p<0.0001), total cholesterol (p<0.0001) and HbA1c (p=0.056) levels, and a lower prevalence of smokers (p<0.0001). Cholesterol/HDL ratio and diastolic and systolic blood pressure were similar in both groups.
Conclusions: The microvascular complications shown by patients with CFRD are similar to those seen in patients with DM1 but with a lower prevalence of retinopathy and a higher prevalence of microalbuminuria. The latter may reflect the influence of other cystic fibrosis-related factors on renal function.