MicroRNAs are short non-coding RNA molecules able to affect stability and/or translation of mRNA, thereby regulating the expression of genes involved in many biological processes. We report here that microRNAs miR-27a and miR-451 are involved in activating the expression of P-glycoprotein, the MDR1 gene product that confers cancer cell resistance to a broad range of chemotherapeutics. We showed that expressions of miR-27a and miR-451 were up-regulated in multidrug resistant (MDR) cancer cell lines A2780DX5 and KB-V1, as compared with their parental lines A2780 and KB-3-1. Treatment of A2780DX5 cells with the antagomirs of miR-27a or miR-451 decreased the expression of P-glycoprotein and MDR1 mRNA. In contrast, the mimics of miR-27a and miR-451 increased MDR1 expression in the parental cells A2780. The sensitivity to and intracellular accumulation of cytotoxic drugs that are transported by P-glycoprotein were enhanced by the treatment with the antagomirs of miR-27a or miR-451. Our results demonstrate for the first time the roles of microRNAs in the regulation of drug resistance mediated by MDR1/P-glycoprotein, and suggest the potential for targeting miR-27a and miR-451 as a therapeutic strategy for modulating MDR in cancer cells.