Efficacy and bait acceptance of vaccinia vectored rabies glycoprotein vaccine in captive foxes (Vulpes vulpes), raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and dogs (Canis familiaris)

Vaccine. 2008 Aug 26;26(36):4627-38. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.06.089. Epub 2008 Jul 11.


The red fox, dog, and raccoon dog are known to play a major role in the global epidemiology of rabies. These three canid species were used to compare the appetency and efficacy of two commercial bait formats, each containing a single dose of vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein (V-RG) vaccine. Square and rectangular RABORAL V-RG baits were fed to individual caged animal, and results were evaluated using three parameters: bait consumption, induction of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and protection after a virulent rabies challenge. The rectangular and square RABORAL V-RG baits were found to deliver the oral rabies vaccine in a similar manner to all three species resulting in acceptable seroconversion and effective protection levels after the rabies challenge. Appetency of each bait type was measured by bait consumption and found to be similar for both RABORAL V-RG bait formats in the fox and dog. The square RABORAL V-RG bait, however, was consumed more effectively than the rectangular RABORAL V-RG bait by the raccoon dog.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood
  • Disease Transmission, Infectious / prevention & control*
  • Dog Diseases / prevention & control
  • Dogs
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Foxes
  • Neutralization Tests
  • Rabies / prevention & control
  • Rabies / veterinary*
  • Rabies Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Rabies Vaccines / immunology*
  • Rabies virus / genetics
  • Rabies virus / immunology
  • Raccoon Dogs
  • Vaccination / methods*
  • Vaccinia / genetics


  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Rabies Vaccines