There is little reliable information on the epidemiology of acute kidney injury (AKI) in Latin America. It is generally assumed that AKI in the developing world affects mainly young and previously healthy people, with an etiologic spectrum relying on particular socioeconomic and environmental conditions. Transmissible diseases such as leptospirosis, malaria, dengue, diarrhea, among others, are recognized as important causes of AKI in these areas. On the other hand, in large cities and university hospitals in Latin American, the AKI spectrum is similar to that seen in developed countries. Large studies are needed to improve our knowledge to design preventive strategies for this potentially lethal disease that affects all population subgroups, from the socially and economically vulnerable to the wealthy. In this article the available information regarding AKI epidemiology in Latin America is reviewed. Data obtained by the Latin American Acute Renal Failure Commission from the Latin American Society of Nephrology through surveys performed in 1997, 2000, and 2004 are reported. Finally, 3 particular medical conditions frequently associated with AKI in Latin America are reviewed.