The development of multidetector computed tomography represents a remarkable diagnostic advancement because this imaging modality has been widely used in the evaluation of the cardiovascular system. With scanner-adjusted image acquisition and contrast medium administration, multidetector computed tomographic angiography provides a cost-effective and accurate imaging assessment in patients with aortic pathologies or peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Multidetector computed tomographic angiography is associated with several advantages, including high image spatial resolution and rapid imaging acquisition speed. This diagnostic methodology allows accurate detection of a variety of intravascular lesions in the carotid artery, thoracic and abdominal aorta, renal arteries, and peripheral arterial systems. This article provides an overview of multidetector computed tomographic angiography in the assessment of arterial disease and reviews current literature about this diagnostic technology in the evaluation of aortic and peripheral arterial pathologies.