Improving membrane voltage measurements using FRET with new fluorescent proteins

Nat Methods. 2008 Aug;5(8):683-5. doi: 10.1038/nmeth.1235. Epub 2008 Jul 11.


We used two new coral fluorescent proteins as fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) donor and acceptor to develop a voltage sensor, named Mermaid, that displays approximately 40% changes in emission ratio per 100 mV, allowing for direct visualization of electrical activities in cultured excitable cells. Notably, Mermaid has fast on-off kinetics at warm (approximately 33 degrees C) temperatures and can report voltage spikes comparable to action potentials.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cell Membrane*
  • Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer / methods*
  • Kinetics
  • Luminescent Proteins / analysis*
  • Luminescent Proteins / genetics
  • Luminescent Proteins / metabolism
  • Membrane Potentials*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / genetics
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / metabolism


  • Luminescent Proteins