A study of 371 women (261 asymptomatic and 110 symptomatic subjects with clinical PID) was performed to detect the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis (C.t.) and to correlate the serological markers against this microrganism, such as antibody to chlamydial hsp60 (Ab-Chsp60) and different levels of IgG, IgM and IgA, with epidemiology, pathology, sexual habits, age, diagnostic methods in the groups of women with and without pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). We found a statistically significant difference between the asymptomatic and symptomatic women regarding the presence of C.t. (3.4% versus 20%; p<0.0001). This presence was affected by the age of women (more in the group < or =25 years old), by having sex with new partners mainly if they did not undergo an antibiotic treatment. The association of antibody Chsp60 with the presence of clinical PID was quite striking. We also found a strict correlation between the detection of Ab-Chsp60 and previous chlamydial infection as well as between Ab-Chsp60 and elevated serum chlamydial IgG or IgA levels. Due to these findings, we can say that the use of serological markers for C.t. in clinical practice may be an important tool for an early screening and diagnosis of women at high risk of chlamydial infection.