Acrylamide exposure was investigated in subgroups of the EPIC study population (510 subjects from 9 European countries, randomly selected and stratified by age, gender, and smoking status) using hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and its primary metabolite glycidamide (HbGA). Blood samples were analyzed for HbAA and HbGA by HPLC/MS/MS. Statistical models for HbAA and HbGA were developed including body mass index (BMI), educational level, and physical activity. A large variability in acrylamide exposure and metabolism between individuals and country groups was observed with HbAA and HbGA values ranging between 15-623 and 8-377 pmol/g of Hb, respectively. Both adducts differed significantly by country, sex, and smoking status. HbGA values were significantly lower in high alcohol consumers than in moderate consumers. With increasing BMI, HbGA in nonsmokers and HbAA in smokers decreased significantly. In the assessment of potential health effects related to acrylamide exposure, country of origin, BMI, alcohol consumption, sex, and smoking status should be considered.