Compromised nutrition leading to weight loss is a common and significant problem in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patient population. The benefit of aggressive and early nutritional therapy can profoundly influence the disease course, quality of life, and survival. This article reviews the role of nutrition, both as sustenance and treatment for patients who have ALS. Self-medication with dietary supplements has become increasingly popular within this patient population. Despite their popularity, the efficacy of these compounds has been largely unsupported by formal clinical trials. Available data will be highlighted to provide a basis upon which to advise patients requesting guidance.