Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Dutch version of SWAL-QoL

Dysphagia. 2009 Mar;24(1):66-70. doi: 10.1007/s00455-008-9174-z. Epub 2008 Jul 15.


The aim of this work was to translate the 44-item SWAL-QoL into Dutch (SWAL-QoL-NL) and compare the validity of this questionnaire against Euroqol in a Dutch population with dysphagia. SWAL-QoL was translated according to international guidelines. SWAL-QoL-NL and Euroqol were completed by 152 patients in seven diagnosis groups. Internal consistency and correlations were calculated. Scores for nine subscales (General burden, Food selection, Eating duration, Fear of eating, Sleep, Fatigue, Mental health, Social functioning and a symptom score) ranged between 0.80 and 0.92 (Cronbach's alpha). Two subscales (Eating desire and Communication scored 0.67 and 0.60, respectively, and were removed from the questionnaire. The 14-item battery on clinical symptoms showed an internal consistency of 0.80, allowing the use of a sum score on group level in clinical research. Correlation of SWAL-QoL-NL subscales with the Euroqol was negligible to low (Pearson's correlations range = 0.09-0.36). The 39-item SWAL-QoL-NL proved to be a reliable tool to examine the impact of dysphagia on quality of life in a Dutch population. Internal consistency allows the use of nine subscales of SWAL-QoL-NL for comparisons on a group level (0.80 < alpha < 0.92) only. Also a Symptom score can be derived from the raw data.

Publication types

  • Controlled Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Deglutition Disorders / complications*
  • Deglutition Disorders / physiopathology
  • Deglutition Disorders / psychology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Netherlands
  • Quality of Life*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Surveys and Questionnaires*
  • Young Adult