Background: The capability of benzophenone-3 (BP-3) to absorb and dissipate ultraviolet radiation facilitates its use as a sunscreen agent. BP-3 has other uses in many consumer products (e.g., as fragrance and flavor enhancer, photoinitiator, ultraviolet curing agent, polymerization inhibitor).
Objectives: Our goal was to assess exposure to BP-3 in a representative sample of the U.S. general population > or = 6 years of age.
Methods: Using automated solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we analyzed 2,517 urine samples collected as part of the 2003--2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Results: We detected BP-3 in 96.8% of the samples. The geometric mean and 95th percentile concentrations were 22.9 microg/L (22.2 microg/g creatinine) and 1,040 microg/L (1,070 microg/g creatinine), respectively. Least-square geometric mean (LSGM) concentrations were significantly higher (p < or = 0.04) for females than for males, regardless of age. LSGM concentrations were significantly higher for non-Hispanic whites than for non-Hispanic blacks (p < or = 0.01), regardless of age. Females were more likely than males [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 3.5; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.9-6.5], and non-Hispanic whites were more likely than non-Hispanic blacks (adjusted OR = 6.8; 95% CI, 2.9-16.2) to have concentrations above the 95th percentile.
Conclusions: Exposure to BP-3 was prevalent in the general U.S. population during 2003--2004. Differences by sex and race/ethnicity probably reflect differences in use of personal care products containing BP-3.
Keywords: NHANES 2003–2004; benzophenone-3; biomonitoring; exposure; human; sunscreen; urine.