Atrial fibrillation is a relevant challenge for health care systems in Europe and North America. Interventional treatment of atrial fibrillation in terms of ablation of atrial structures including isolation of the pulmonary veins is nowadays established as an alternative to drug therapy, especially if treatment with antiarrhythmic drugs has been ineffective. Recently published European and North American guidelines support this strategy. This article describes different techniques of atrial fibrillation ablation including intracardiac echo-guided pulmonary vein isolation. Potential complications, success rates and different follow-up strategies are specified. Furthermore interventional treatment of atrial fibrillation of heart failure patients is discussed.