Allele frequency distribution of 13 X-chromosomal STR loci in Pakistani population

Int J Legal Med. 2008 Nov;122(6):525-8. doi: 10.1007/s00414-008-0263-1. Epub 2008 Jul 16.


Short tandem repeat (STR) markers are extensively being used for human identification as well as paternity and forensic case work. X-chromosome STR (X-STR) markers are a powerful complementary system especially in deficiency paternity testing. Many X-linked microsatellites have been evaluated but further studies are required to determine population specific statistics. Here, we report allele frequencies of 13 X-linked microsatellites (DXS8378, DXS9902, DXS6810, DXS7132, DXS981, DXS6793, DXS6801, DXS6789, GATA172D05, HPRTB, GATA31E08, DXS8377, and DXS7423) in the Pakistani population. Blood samples were collected from individuals representing all major ethnic groups of the Pakistan population. A total of 5-18 alleles were observed for each locus and altogether 109 alleles for all 13 X-STR loci. Heterozygosity in females ranged from 0.524 to 0.884. No significant deviation was observed from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for all 13 microsatellites. In addition, there was no evidence of linkage disequilibrium in any pairs of these markers. These results strongly suggest that the X-linked microsatellites described here can potentially serve as an extension to autosomal systems currently used in parentage analysis and forensic case work.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Chromosomes, Human, X*
  • DNA Fingerprinting
  • Female
  • Gene Frequency*
  • Genetics, Population*
  • Heterozygote
  • Humans
  • Pakistan
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Tandem Repeat Sequences*