The in vitro effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on cell loading, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) is assessed on distinct resorbable and synthetic calcium phosphate scaffolds. A high specific surface area scaffold composed of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA; 48m2/g) is compared with one made out of beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP; surface area <0.5 m2/g). Fivefold concentrated fresh PRP is applied to scaffolds loaded with 2 x 10(5) MSC (n = 5). These constructs are kept in a medium with osteogenic supplements for 3 weeks. The addition of PRP leads to a higher cell loading efficiency of MSC on CDHA (p = 0.0001), that reaches the values of beta-TCP. Proliferation over 21 days is improved by PRP both on CDHA (p = 0.0001) and beta-TCP (p = 0.014) compared to MSC/calcium phosphate composites. Without the addition of PRP, CDHA has a lower cell loading efficiency (p= 0.0001) and proliferation (p= 0.001) than beta-TCP. The ALP activity is higher in the MSC/ceramics groups than in the monolayer controls (p<0.05). The addition of PRP does not significantly affect ALP activity. However, ALP activity varies considerably within the cell donors and different PRP-pools (p = 0.001), while the cell numbers do not vary within these two parameters. PRP generates a positive effect on the loading efficiency of MSC on the high specific surface scaffold CDHA that thereby reaches the loading efficiency of beta-TCP. PRP improved proliferation, but its osteogenic properties on both calcium phosphate scaffolds are weak.