Clinical and histopathologic independent prognostic factors in oral squamous cell carcinoma: a retrospective study of 334 cases

J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008 Aug;66(8):1570-9. doi: 10.1016/j.joms.2007.12.024.


Purpose: This retrospective hospital-based study reviewed and evaluated the outcome of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with the aim of identifying factors affecting the clinical course and survival rate.

Patients and methods: Patients with a follow-up of at least 12 months were included. The data collected were statistically analyzed for the presence of factors valuable for prognosis; survival curves were processed in accordance with the Kaplan-Meier method. Differences in the expression of variables in different grading levels were investigated. Cox's proportional hazard model for Z(i) covariates (grading, age, T, N) also was calculated.

Results: Mean patient age was 67.7 years in women (n = 152) and 62.4 years in men (n = 182). A total of 98 patients were identified with Broder's/World Health Organization grade 1 histology, 176 with grade 2, and 55 with grade 3; 5 patients were identified as grade 4 (carcinoma in situ). Gender and risk factors seemed to be unrelated to prognosis, whereas a significant increase in mortality was seen in patients over age 70. Histological grading, tumor size, and neck involvement were related, as independent factors, in predicting survival in patients with OSCC (QM-H > 3.9). Gender, age, and risk factors had no statistical relationship with cancer histological differentiation.

Conclusions: Our analysis reveals a statistically significant relationship among histological Broder's grading of malignancy, tumor size, locoregional involvement, and survival rates, underscoring the utility of tumor differentiation in predicting the clinical course and outcome of OSCC.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Alcohol Drinking
  • Carcinoma in Situ / pathology
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology*
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Lymph Nodes / pathology
  • Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mouth Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Mouth Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • Mouth Neoplasms / surgery
  • Neoadjuvant Therapy
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Smoking
  • Survival Rate
  • Tongue Neoplasms / pathology
  • Tongue Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • Tongue Neoplasms / surgery
  • Treatment Outcome