Integrated disinfection by-products mixtures research: disinfection of drinking waters by chlorination and ozonation/postchlorination treatment scenarios

J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2008;71(17):1133-48. doi: 10.1080/15287390802182060.


This article describes disinfection of the same source water by two commonly used disinfection treatment scenarios for purposes of subsequent concentration, chemical analysis, and toxicological evaluation. Accompanying articles in this issue of the Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health describe concentration of these finished waters by reverse osmosis techniques, chemical characterization of the resulting disinfection by-product (DBP) concentrates, in vivo and in vitro toxicological results, and risk assessment methods developed to analyze data from this project. This project, called the "Four Lab Study," involved participation of scientists from four laboratories/centers of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development as well as extramural collaborators from the water industry and academia. One of the two finished waters was prepared by conventional treatment and disinfected by chlorination. The other finished water was also prepared by conventional treatment and disinfected by ozonation followed by chlorination (ozonation/postchlorination). Chlorination conditions of dose, time and temperature were similar for both treatment scenarios, allowing for a comparison. Both finished waters had acceptably low levels of particulates and bacteria, representative pH and chlorine levels, and contained numerous DBP. Known effects of ozonation were observed in that, relative to the water that was chlorinated only, the ozonated/postchlorinated water had lower concentrations of total organic halogen, trihalomethanes (THM), haloacetic acids (HAA), and higher concentrations of bromate, and aldehydes.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Disinfectants / metabolism*
  • Disinfectants / toxicity
  • Filtration
  • Halogenation*
  • Humans
  • Hydrocarbons, Halogenated / analysis*
  • Hydrocarbons, Halogenated / toxicity
  • Ozone / chemistry*
  • Risk Assessment
  • United States
  • United States Environmental Protection Agency*
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / analysis*
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / toxicity
  • Water Purification / methods*
  • Water Supply / analysis*


  • Disinfectants
  • Hydrocarbons, Halogenated
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical
  • Ozone