G1 to S phase cell cycle transition in somatic and embryonic stem cells

J Anat. 2008 Jul;213(1):30-44. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2008.00931.x.


It is well known that G1 to S phase transition is tightly regulated by the expression and phosphorylation of a number of well-characterized cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases and members of the retinoblastoma gene family. In this review we discuss the role of these components in regulation of G1 to S phase transition in somatic cells and human embryonic stem cells. Most importantly, we discuss some new tenable links between maintenance of pluripotency and cell cycle regulation in embryonic stem cells by describing the role that master transcription factors play in this process. Finally, the differences in cell cycle regulation between murine and human embryonic stem cells are highlighted, raising interesting questions regarding their biology and stages of embryonic development from which they have been derived.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / physiology
  • Embryonic Stem Cells / cytology*
  • G1 Phase*
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Phosphorylation
  • Pluripotent Stem Cells / cytology
  • S Phase*
  • Species Specificity
  • Transcription Factors / physiology


  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Transcription Factors