In Australia, 12% of the hemodialysis population dialyze at home. Until recently, the majority of these patients dialyzed for similar hours to those in satellite dialysis. However, in the past 5 years there has been a new departure such that in many centers the concept of home hemodialysis is now synonymous with extended hours dialysis. Registry data supports the concept that increased frequency and duration of dialysis may result in improved patient survival and a reduction in cardiovascular risk profile. It is hoped, therefore, that the long recognized survival benefit observed in home hemodialysis patients may be further augmented by the swing to extended hours dialysis in this patient population. In addition to the physiological benefits of extended hours home dialysis, there are clear quality of life, social, and economic advantages associated with dialyzing at home. There are however a number of perceived disadvantages to home hemodialysis including the application and time commitment required for training, the potential for relationship strain or "burnout," and reluctance to "hospitalize" the home. Overall, however, in this new era of extended hours dialysis, the advantages both physiological and lifestyle of home hemodialysis far outweigh the disadvantages.