Home hemodialysis is regaining popularity as a treatment choice for end-stage kidney disease. This trend is fueled by numerous reports of better survival and improved quality of life with primarily home-based more frequent and/or longer hours of hemodialysis. Home hemodialysis in the contemporary era is generally very safe. Advances in machine technology have reduced technical complications and longer and more frequent treatments have reduced the risk of hypotension and cardiovascular instability. A successful home hemodialysis program must focus on patient safety to prevent serious hemorrhage from needle dislodgement and enable an aseptic cannulation technique. In addition, vigilance in relation to machine maintenance procedures and attention to water quality are key skills that patients must acquire for optimal outcomes. The possibility of increased septic events with longer and more frequent hemodialysis regimens performed in the home, the long-term psychosocial effects of home hemodialysis, and the best methods for maintaining compliance of patients in the long term are of particular contemporary interest.